初中定语从句总结用法大全 - 下载本文

定语从句

走进中考

定语从句的难点在于学生分析不清楚先行词,不能正确使用关系代词和关系副词,不能正确理解定语从句中的一些特殊用法。中考对于定语从句的掌握要求如下:

1. 掌握关系代词的用法,特别是that, which, who, whom, whose作主语、表语和定语的用法。

2. 掌握关系副词when, where, why引导定语从句的用法; 3. 掌握“介词+关系代词”的用法,尤其是介词的选取和使用; 4. 掌握关系代词that和which的用法的异同;

5. 掌握表示地点或时间的名词充当先行词时,关系代词和关系副词的选择问题。

思维导图

概念和位置定语从句位置、概念及构成先行词和关系词定语从句的构成that引导which引导关系代词引导的定语从句who,whom引导whose引导定语从句when引导关系副词引导的定语从句where引导why引导只用that不用which的情况只用which不用that定语从句使用的注意事项定语从句中的主谓一致关系代词和关系副词的区别介词+关系代词

1. 定语从句的概念和位置

在句子中起定语作用的从句成为定语从句。定语从句在句子的作用相当于形容词,故又称为形容词从句。(在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句)。 e.g.: Do you know the girl who is singing on the stage?

This is the museum which was built last year. 2. 先行词和关系代词

被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。定语从句一般放在先行词的后面。 引导定语从句的词叫关系词,指代先行词,放在先行词和定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又充当定语从句的某一个成分(主语、宾语、表语、状语等);

关系代词

定语从句关系词

关系副词

that, who, whom, whose,

whichwhen, where, why

e.g.: The manwho has an umbrella in his hand is my uncle. 先行词关系代词(在从句中做主语)

The trainwhich has just left is for Shenzhen. 先行词关系代词(做主语)

Let’s find a placewhere we can have a picnic. 先行词关系副词(地点状语)

定语从句的构

关系代词=连接词+代词 成:

The car has 7 seats.

He has a car. +

== He has a car and it has 7 seats. == He has a car which has 7 seats.

The hotel is very clean. + We stayed here. == The hotel where we stayed was very clean.

We met a man.+ The man directed us to the factory. =>We met a man and he directed us to the factory. =>We met a man who directed us to the factory.

3. 关系代词引导的定语从句

出题点:A指代人的关系代词充当主语、宾语、表语的用法; B 指代物的关系代词充当主语、宾语、表语的用法。

关系代词在句子中起连接、替代的作用,在句子中充当一定的成分,修饰前面的先行词。引导定语从句的关系代词that,which,who,whom,whose,主要用法如下表格: 先行词 主语 宾语 所有格 人 Who/that Whom/that Whose 事物、动词 Which/that Which/that Whose 人+动物 that that 人+事物 关系代词与普通代词的区别: 普通代词只起替代作用。

关系代词替代先行词,在定语从句中充当一定的成分,同时把先行词与定语从句联系在一起,起连词的作用。 i. That引导的定语从句

That 可以指人也可以指物,在定语从句中充当主语、宾语、表语。作宾语时可以省略。作介词宾语时,介词不可提到that之前,若介词提到前面,指物用which指人用whom

e.g.: Views that are entirely new may also be hard to accept. We need a person that is right for the job.

The picture (that) we are studying was drawn by a fifteen-year-old student.

ii. Which引导的定语从句

Which一般指物,在定语从句中作主语和宾语。作宾语的关系代词which可以省略(放介词后除外):

e.g.: The river which runs through the center of the city was polluted seriously.

The story (which) he told was very popular.

The house in which I used to live has become a shoe shop.

iii. Who,whom引导的定语从句

二者都用于指人。Who在定语从句中作主语、宾语;whom在定语从句中作宾语。作宾语的关系代词who,whom可以省略(介词后作宾语的关系代词除外)

e.g.:---We are proud of Mo Yan.

---Yes. He is a great writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2012.

e.g.: Her sister married a man (who/whom) she met on a plane.

注意:先行词为one, ones, anyone 或those 时,定语从句中的关系代词用

who

e.g.: God helps those who help themselves. 自助者天助之。

重点提醒: whom在定语从句中作介词的宾语,且介词提到whom前面时,

不能用who代替:e.g.: The person to who you just talked is Deep.(错误) 应该为to whom

或者可以这样表达:The person who/whom you just talked to is Deep.(正确) 在现代英语中,定语从句中作宾语的关系代词whom可以用who代替,但who不用于介词之后。在非限定性定语从句中,whom不可用who代替。 iv. Whose引导的定语从句

Whose可以指人也可以指物,在定语从句中作定语。 e.g.: Do you know the girlwhose Japanese is excellent?

I’d like a roomwhose window looks out over the sea.

重点提升:有时“whose+名词”可用“限定词+名词+ofwhich/whom”或者

“ofwhich/whom+限定词+名词”来替代。

e.g.: He lives in a house whose windows face south.

=== He lives in a house whose windows face south.

=== He lives in a house the windows of which face south.

另:whose+名词引导定语从句时,名词前不能再接限定词,只有转换为“限定

词+名词+ofwhich/whom”或“ofwhich/whom+限定词+名词”时,名词前面可以有限定词。

4. 关系副词引导的定语从句

出题点:关系副词when,where,why的用法

关系副词在定语从句中充当状语,一般不可省略。常用的关系副词有when,where,why等。选择哪一个关系副词要看其前面的先行词。 关系副词 先行词 在从句中充当的成分 表示地点的名词 地点状语 Where 表示时间的名词 时间状语 When 原因状语 Why Reason e.g. I remember the day. + We first met then. == I remember the daywhen we first met. 关系副词作时间状语,相当于onwhich (1) when引导定语从句

when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。它的先行词通常为time,day,week等表示时间的名词。此时时常可用onwhich,inwhich,duringwhich等替代。

e.g.: April the first is the day when people make fun of others. I still remember the time when I first travelled by plane. 注意:当表示时间的先行词在定语从句中作主语或宾语时,关系代词不能用when。

(2) where引导的定语从句