their families. The polar opposite of labor is play. When we play a game, we enjoy what we are doing, but it is a purely private pastime; society does not care when or whether we play.
如果人们的工作对自己有负面的影响，但为了遵从社会的期望或者挣钱养家糊口而被迫必须继续工作，那么他们就被认为是劳役者。劳役的对立面是玩乐。当我们玩游戏时，我们很享受正在做的事情，但这仅仅是个人娱乐。社会对我们何时玩乐或者是否玩乐并不关心。 Between labor and play stands work. People are labeled as workers if their personal interests coincide with the jobs society pays them to do; what is necessary labor from the point of view of society is voluntary play from the individual's personal point of view. Whether a job is to be designated as labor or work depends, not on the job itself, but on the tastes of the
individual who undertakes it. The difference does not, for example, correlate with the difference between a manual and mental job or between jobs of low or high esteem; a gardener covered in dirt in a greenhouse may be a worker while a well-dressed city mayor may prove to be an unhappy laborer!
处于劳役和玩乐之间的就是工作。如果人们的个人兴趣跟社会付酬让他们做的工作相吻合，他们就被称为工作者。社会上看来一定是苦工的事情对个人来说却是自在的玩乐活动。一份活到底应定为工作还是劳役并不取决于其本身，而是承担这份活的个人感受。比如，二者的区别与是体力活还是脑力活或尊严的高低没有关联。温室里满身尘土的园丁可能是工作者，而衣冠楚楚的市长则可能是一个不开心的劳役者！ People's attitude toward their work determines everything. To workers, leisure means simply the hours they need to relax and rest in order to work efficiently. Workers are therefore more prone to dedicate more time to working, taking too little leisure rather than too much. To laborers, on the other hand, leisure means autonomy from compulsion, so it is natural for them to imagine that the fewer hours they have to spend laboring, and the more hours they have free for play, the better.
Besides the mere hours spent in leisure, workers and laborers differ in the amount of personal satisfaction they derive from their jobs. Workers who enjoy their jobs will be happier, less stressed, and generally more satisfied with their lives. They will also work with more diligence and
precision because they have fostered a sense of personal pride in their jobs. On the other hand, laborers, whose sole incentive is earning their livelihood, feel that the time they spend on the daily grind is wasted and doesn't
contribute to their happiness. Instead of valuing all 24 hours of their day as enjoyable and productive hours, they gauge only the time spent in leisure and play as meaningful. Unfortunately, laborers are all too commonplace, and only a small percentage of the population is in the lucky position of being workers.
除了花在闲暇上的时间不同，工作者和劳役者的区别还在于他们从工作中获得的个人满足感不同。工作者喜欢自己的工作，感觉更快乐，更轻松，通常对自己的生活更满意。他们工作起来也会更勤奋，更精细，因为他们对自己的工作已经产生了一种自豪感。相反，由于劳役者的唯一动力是挣生活费，他们觉得每天花在苦差上的时间是一种浪费，不会让自己快乐。他们不把每天的 24 小时都当作愉快有用的时光，认为只有花在休闲娱乐上的时间才是有意义的。不幸的是，劳役者太常见了，只有一小部分人能有幸成为工作者。
In recent decades, technological innovation and the division of labor have caused major economic changes by eliminating the need for special strength or skill in many fields and have turned many paid occupations with enjoyable work into boring labor. Increasing productivity with automated
machines, such as robots, has reduced the number of necessary laboring hours. It is possible to imagine an upcoming society in which the majority of the population will have almost as much leisure time as in earlier times was enjoyed by the medieval aristocracy. The medieval aristocrats had an
abundance of leisure time but often wasted it in trivial pursuit of games and fashion. Likewise, modern-day laborers with too much leisure time may find it difficult to refrain from the addictive and trivial pursuits of celebrity gossip, extravagant fashion, and excessive video games and TV - similar bad habits that waste valuable time.
近几十年，技术创新和劳动分工使许多领域不再需要专长或特殊技能，导致了重大经济变革，把许多可以通过开心工作来挣钱的职业变成了枯燥的劳役。随着自动化机器如机器人的使用，日益提高的生产力减少了必要的劳作时间。可以想象，在即将到来的社会中，大多数人会拥有同早期中世纪贵族一样多的闲暇时间。中世纪贵族有大量的闲暇时间，但却往往耗费在玩游戏和对时尚的无聊追求上。同样，有太多闲暇时间的现代劳役者们会觉得很难摆脱那些无聊又易上瘾的追求，像名人八卦、奢华时尚、过度电子游戏和电视等诸如此类浪费宝贵时间的坏习惯。 However, it's not necessary to take such a toxic attitude toward such a positive thing as leisure time. In fact, in many countries, people now use their leisure time to improve their minds and their working conditions to create a happier, more contented life. Lifelong learning can make the difference between being bored, unhappy laborers and workers who find meaning and joy in their employment and life. \\such as sports, art classes or music to leadership development, advanced accounting skills, or CAD (computer-aided design), to name only a few.
教育”或“体验学习”能提供一系列课程，略举几例，如从运动、艺术或音乐等休闲娱乐课程到领导力拓展、高级会计或 CAD (计算机辅助设计）等。
Whatever the job, people who enjoy their work find time passes quickly. They hurl their passion into their work, be it physical like the work of a smith, or more mental like that of a scientist or an artist. Even purely mental work can suffice as an outlet, as aptly expressed by the phrase \teeth into a problem\
Eventually, everyone has to find a job and earn a living. Laborers are slaving away at a job they don't enjoy for a small monetary reward, waiting all day until they go home and play. But while laborers are counting down the hours, workers are energized and focused, taking optimum pleasure in the task at hand. By choosing a job that is both useful to society and
personally fulfilling, workers maintain a simultaneous sense of purpose and enthusiasm that improves their whole lives. So in the end, whatever job you choose, you must contend with this essential question: Will you be a laborer or a worker?
The joy of a prideful tradition 光荣传统带来的快乐
I first met him in 1965, when I rushed into his little shop to have the heels of my shoes repaired. He greeted me with a cheerful smile and instant hospitality. \
第一次见他是在 1965 年，当时我匆匆进入他的小店去修我的鞋跟。他露出开心的笑容，马上热情地招呼我，“你刚搬到这附近，是吗？” Indeed, I had moved into a house at the end of the street only a week before.
I sat there with my shoes off, watching as he got ready to stitch up my shoes I'd entrusted to him. He looked sadly at the leather covering the mount of the heel. It was worn through because I had failed to have the shoes patched a month ago. I grew a little impatient, for I was rushing to meet a friend. \
我脱了鞋坐在那儿，看着他准备动手缝补我交给他的鞋。他惋惜地看着包鞋跟底的皮革。一个月前鞋就该补了，现在那块皮已经磨穿了。因为还要急着去见一位朋友，我有点不耐烦了。“请快点儿，”我请求道。 He looked at me over his spectacles. \This handicraft is my specialty and I want to do a good job.\moment. \
他从眼镜上方看了看我。“别急，要不了多久的。这手艺是我最拿手的，我想做好点。”他沉默了一会儿。“你知道，我得遵守传统。” A tradition? In this simplistic little shop that was no different from so many other shoe-repair shops on the residential side streets of Washington? The thought seemed a bit absurd.